A Comparative Study on Basic Judgement of Moral Problems between Theravada Buddhist Philosophy and Carvaka Philosophy
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The objectives of this research are : (1) to study basic judgment of Theravada Buddhist philosophy, (2) to study ethics according to Carvaka Philosophy and (3) to compare ethical judgments between Theravada Buddhist Philosophy and Carvaka Philosophy. From the study, it is found that a comparative study of ethical judgments based on Theravada Buddhist philosophy and Carvaka Philosophy is totally different. The criteria for judging ethical values of Buddhist philosophy focuses on intention when judging the behavior of a person in the manner of wrongdoing. The actions are divided into physical, verbal and spiritual. The main criteria are to consider that the cause is the intention of the three roots of bad action, greed, hatred and delusion which are seen as bad deeds.criteria used to judge the moral problem, it can be both the secondary criteria or co-criteria.The social factors must also be considered, using conscience withtheir own conscience in order to considerthe action to find out that oneself is able to blame oneself or not. There should be consideration on acceptance from a reasonable person, scholar or sage; it can be accepted by those people or not. The characteristics and results of actions against oneself must also be considered in order to see that it is self-harm or encroaches on others or not.Besides, there should also be consideration on the case that it is cause the happiness and suffer for oneself or the other people or not. Ethics of Carvaka Philosophy believes that the best life is an act that brings happiness and enjoyment to you as much as possible. It is called hedonism which refers to people who adhere to materialism, rejecting the Vedas beliefs and the Brahmin rituals and aiming to teach people to find objects and erotic sexual pleasure. This is because it believes that people were born only in a single nation. When they are dead they cannot go to the next life. There is no hell and heaven for them; there is only life in the present.This type of philosophy also believes that the truth must be proven only through senses, teaching people to seek happiness while still alive in the present.
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